In recent years, soft robots have attracted great attention with the continuous development of artificial intelligence. Flexible actuators and artificial muscles, which are the key components of soft robots, have attracted extensive studies in order to meet the requirements of human-machine interaction and environmental adaptability of soft robots. Soft actuators can overcome the drawbacks of traditional actuators, such as complex structure, bulk volume, and rigidity, which also expand new ideas for the development of future intelligent equipment. Artificial muscles, as one of the most common flexible actuators, has aroused extensive research interest. Artificial muscles respond quickly to external stimuli, producing movements such as rotation, contraction, and elongation. Artificial muscles are expected to be widely used in artificial intelligence, intelligent manufacturing, biomedicine, robotics and other fields. Among different kinds of artificial muscles, fiber-based artificial muscles have attracted more and more scholars' interest due to its excellent driving performance and broad application prospect. This review paper mainly introduces the preparation mechanism of fiber artificial muscles, and summarizes the fiber artificial muscles with different driving modes, including electro-driven, thermally driven, electrochemical driven, humidity driven, and light driven. In addition, the research progresses and application of fiber-based artificial muscles are introduced in detail. We also discussed the perspective development of fiber artificial muscle in the future.